Проверь уровень грамматики английского языка
Для заполнения теста потребуется 40 минут
Questions 1-10: Choose the best answer to make meaningful sentences.
1. Because of the _____ gravitational pull of the Moon, the shape of the Earth actually changes as the largest oceans are pulled toward the Moon.
2. Deciding on which school to go to was a(n) _____ decision for me so I consulted anybody who could be of help.
3. The production and _____ of goods and services are the ultimate aim of all economic endeavour.
4. It is a well-known fact that the _____ of a large house requires a great deal of work.
5. A law that _____ tobacco advertising in newspapers and magazines has just been made public.
6. Towards the end of the summer, all airlines are forced to _____ fares heavily in order to spur demand.
7. Although the literacy rate has increased _____ in the last fifty years, the overall quality of education in the secondary schools has markedly deteriorated.
8. Even though it was his first public concert, my brother performed _____ well the other night.
9. It is our _____ to provide your business with the lowest possible rate combined with highest level of customer service.
10. Do you think some TV programmes _____ public opinion through their selective publishing and presentation of news?
Questions 21-25: Choose the option which best rewrites each sentence.
21. I have been abroad for nearly two years, so I am out of touch with everything here.
22. Nowadays, the government seems to care more about gathering money than changing the society for better.
23. Unless a country can establish the fact that its economy is sound, the world’s public and private lenders refuse to extend loans.
24. When there was a sudden drop in gold prices, even those who knew the market very well were astonished.
25. Despite the fact that some are opposed to the idea, most people believe that the printed word remains the best way to get a message across.
Questions 26-45: Choose the best answer according to the passage below.
(1) "What's for dinner?" In the past, the answer to that household question was an issue for debate among family members only. But not any more. Now scientists, economists, trade experts, geneticists and politicians are all discussing what should be served for dinner.

(2) The food fuss revolves around one phrase: genetic modification. There are two groups with strong views on both sides of that phrase. One side argues that genetic modification of food enhances the quality and nutritional value of already-existing foods as well as generating new ways to produce that food. The other side questions the technology's safety and long-term effects, arguing that people simply don't know what they are putting in their mouths.

(3) The term 'genetically modified' (GM) is an offspring of another term: biotechnology. A word that has been around for thirty years, biotechnology was created in the shadow of new techniques that allowed scientists to modify the genetic material in living cells. Basically, that means playing around with various biological processes to produce substances that, arguably, benefit things like agriculture, medicine, and the environment.

(4) If you know how to cut and paste on a computer, you have figured out genetic modification. The Canadian food Inspection Agency describes it like this: It all begins with a cell made up of chromosomes; the chromosomes are made up of DNA and are organised into sections called genes; genes determine the characteristics of an organism. These genes can be 'cut' from one organism and 'pasted' into another. Several foods that people eat every day are products of this process, such as tomatoes that ripen on the vine and maintain their texture and tough skin for several weeks. A potato plant developed to resist an insect known to attack it is another example. In the latter case, the GM version eliminates the need for chemical pesticides.

(5) Proponents of GM foods argue that using biotechnology in the production of food products has many benefits. It speeds up the process of breeding plants and animals with desired characteristics, can be used to introduce new characteristics that a product would not normally have, and can improve the nutritional value of products. And, say the supporters, all of this is done safely.

(6) Groups who advocate against the use of GM foods do not see things quite the same way. They point to studies that argue GM foods could be harmful to people's health. To the groups on this side of the issue, that 'could' provides more than enough reason to go forward with extreme caution, something they say is not currently being done. GM critics say enough time has not passed to study the long-term effects of the foods.

(7) In Europe, hardly a week goes by without some headline about GM foods or, rather, 'Frankenfoods' * as they have been called by the European media. The Church of England has entered the debate, criticising the production of GM crops. Ever responsive to consumer demands, the European Union has taken a strong position on this issue, going so far as to propose a ban on GM foods. These responses are the outcome of a campaign. Various scares, the best-known being mad cow disease, have consumers in Europe cautious of food genetically altered to kill pests or resist herbicides (chemicals that stop the growth of certain plants).

(8) Two British food companies have even dropped GM ingredients from their products, something the North American branches of these companies have not done. That is not all that surprising for one simple reason: there is an unmistakable split in the policies toward GM foods between the two sides of the Atlantic that some call the Atlantic Divide. Supporters argue North America's approach is more progressive, while sceptics argue it is less safe. Whatever the case, the Atlantic Divide can be attributed to two things. The first is all about experience: the North American side of the Atlantic has not seen a scare comparable to mad cow disease. The second is all about dollars: North Americans expect their food to be cheap. And while the Atlantic may divide the approach to GM foods, it does not stop the two sides from arguing.

(9) The fuss over food extends to whether the manufacturing process is made known. Canada has adopted both a mandatory and voluntary labelling policy. According to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, mandatory labelling applies to all foods that have been changed nutritionally or compositionally, or to alert consumers of possible allergens, that is, substances that cause allergies. That does not mean, though, that all GM food will be labelled. If it can be shown through tests that the nutrition or composition of such foods remains unchanged, no special label is required. Even though labels are not required, they are allowed, but only when 'truthful and not misleading.' A good example is the 'fat free' claim made on some products. Because of the ambiguity surrounding voluntary labelling, it has been determined that clearer rules are needed.

(10) The GM debate makes us consider the role technology has in our lives. What makes this debate unique is that every meal we eat is at its very core. And that fact means one thing: it is an issue that will be discussed not only around policy tables, but dinner tables as well.

26. From the first paragraph, we understand that ____.
27. The main aim of paragraph 2 is to show the reader that ____.
28. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is FALSE?
29. The writer uses computer terms like ‘cut’ and ‘paste’ in order to show that ____.
30. The word “it” in paragraph 4 refers to ____.
31. The word “breeding” in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to ____.
32. According to paragraph 6, which of the following is FALSE?
33. The European Union ____.
34. Two British companies excluded GM ingredients from their products in Europe, but continued to include them in their products in North America because ____.
35. The word “mandatory” in paragraph 9 is closest in meaning to ____.
36. The main purpose of this text is to ____.
(II)

Visitors to the United States, especially those from Japan or the smaller countries of Europe, are likely to comment on the size and scale of everything. Although the downtown sections of some of the older cities such as Boston and Philadelphia may look similar to their own larger cities, other aspects are likely to appear "out of scale". For example, the average American farm is huge in comparison with the typical family farm of Europe and Asia. Across the Great Plains, farmers use great machines to plant and harvest enormous quantities of wheat. Such farms offer a dramatic contrast to the tiny farms of Europe or Asia, where intense human labour is more important. The main cities of the United States are connected by a vast system of highways and superhighways moving endless streams of cars and trucks, while on the edge of the cities, suburban developments and shopping centres with huge parking lots stretch for mile after mile. It is as if Americans made everything larger, just to use up the available space.

37. To Japanese and European visitors, the downtown sections of Boston and Philadelphia seem ____.
38. The typical American farm ____.
39. The article implies that people in the United States are influenced by ____.
40. The word “streams” is closest in meaning to ____.
(III)

People do not need to be in close physical contact to feel "connected" emotionally. Over the years, various means of communication have been used to enable human beings to keep in contact with one another. Letters, telegrams and telephones have allowed individuals located in different places to share news and to interact with family, friends and business relationships. In today's world, with more and more people on the move, long-distance communication has become even more important. At the same time, changes in technology, particularly the introduction of computers and the increasing use of electronic mail, have made it easier than ever to stay in contact. There are two main reasons why e-mail has become so widespread: time and money. Although mail service and telephones can be found almost everywhere, a letter can take a long time to arrive and phone calls are often quite expensive. E-mail seems to be replacing other forms of communication for many purposes. As the use of computers has spread, many people use e-mail rather than regular mail to send personal messages. Because it has become so easy to send pictures and information via the Internet, it has also become commonplace to use e-mail in business. E-mail has even given rise to a new type of communication, the "chat room," where groups of people who do not know each other personally can talk about topics of mutual interest. While some people are enthusiastic about communication in the modern age, others regret the growing depersonalization brought on by the use of e-mail. Communication has become so easy and yet so removed from the normal process of face-to-face interaction that researchers have concluded that a whole new culture of communication may be forming.

41. The main idea of the article is that ____.
42. According to the text, modern communications enable people to ____.
43. In comparison with a telephone call, an e-mail is ____.
44. ____ is a type of communication made possible by e-mail.
45. The word “mutual” is closest in meaning to ____.
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